Bauhaus Art Movement: A Ground-breaking Ecole in Design

We have analysed Bauhaus School as one of the most important art movement of the 20th century, and it still impacts today.

Bauhaus School, which aims to be unique and experimental in art, design and architecture, was founded in 1919. This school was only operational for 14 years but the artists, designers and architectures raised in this school have become some of the most important symbols of the combination of industrialization and art.

This movement that still has its impacts in today’s world meet the desire for simple, practical and modest serial manufacturing design for the Industrial Age. Bauhaus Movement celebrated its 100th birthday as of 2019, and succeeded in making a deep mark in art movements and penetrating to all branches of art.

In this article, we will take a look at Bauhaus Ecole emerged in the 20th century and we will help you to know this movement better. If you are ready, let’s set our course towards Germany.

What Is Bauhaus Art Movement?

Bauhaus School, which was established in 1919 in Weimar, Germany by the architect Walter Gropius, was, in fact, an art movement and represented the beginning of a new life and new ideas. This school was established after the World War I and tried to combine industry, art and crafts in a modernist style.

Bauhaus literally means “the house of structure” and this movement aimed to show that art and serial manufacturing can be done together with a free and new world perspective. The school was active in Weimar between 1919 and 1925, in Dessau between 1925 and 1932 and in Berlin from 1933 until it was closed, and was always managed by directors of architecture major.

This school that gave birth to some important ideas in terms of modern architecture and art managed to become an ecole despite its short life.

Bauhaus Philosophy: Importance of Art in Daily Life

The mission of Walter Gropius, the founder of Bauhaus School, was to create a society based on cooperation by combining artists and artisans in different branches of art such as painting, sculpture and architecture. According to Gropius, the attractiveness of art was hidden in the connection with daily life and the benefits it provided for life.

Gropius especially cared for functionality and simplicity in architectural structures. He believed that the structures must meet the needs of the public and be coherent with the surrounding environment. Therefore, his aim was to combine interior and outer spaces by adding a transparent look to the buildings.

The term Bauhaus was evolved over time, as it was the centre of discussions related to the role of art in that period. This innovative art movement has turned to a form to describe artistic works with geometric balance and clear lines that was born from the teachings of this school.

Bauhaus Art School in Architectural Terms: Structures for The Needs

Bauhaus Art School emphasized that the buildings are the most fundamental point where all art forms are combined. Therefore, this school aims to provide a fundamental education that combines urban planning, structure, planning and technical drawing.

This movement with an original goal to connect art and crafts was regarded architecture as an object or research. The design synthesis they created was able to reach today. Bauhaus School, which aims to use the art phenomenon and all its references for the needs of people, mainly aimed to act according to the functionality of a product or structure rather than aesthetic concerns.

Additionally, this school tried to shape artists over social issues and tried to assign them certain responsibilities in this field. Bauhaus products and movement led to all works on the role of art and artists, and art towards a new form in the Industrial Age.

End of Bauhaus Art School

Bauhaus Art School operated in an oppressive period and the school was constantly forced to move between cities. In the end, the school was officially closed in 1933 due to Nazi oppression.

After Bauhaus School was closed, the members were banished and many of the educators in this school went to the universities in the US. “New Bauhaus School”, established in Chicago in 1937, was then renamed as Illinois Design Institute and survived until today. Thus, Bauhaus Ecole, one of the most important artistic and architectural movements of the 20th century, became permanent.

This is the end of our article but if you want to continue reading, you can check our “Changing and Transforming World: Importance of Human-Centric Design” article.

25.12.2019 - Culture and Art
Design, culture